Sanicro® 28 Tube and pipe, seamless

Datasheet updated

2022-09-21 11:26
(supersedes all previous editions)

Sanicro® 28 is a high-alloy multi-purpose austenitic stainless steel for service in highly corrosive conditions.

The grade is characterized by:

  • Very high corrosion resistance in strong acids
  • Very good resistance to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and intergranular corrosion in various environments
  • High resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion
  • Good weldability

Standards

  • UNS: N08028
  • ISO: 4563-080-28-I
  • EN Number: 1.4563
  • EN Name: X 1 NiCrMoCu 31-27-4
  • W.Nr.: 1.4563
  • DIN: X 1 NiCrMoCuN 31 27 4
  • SS: 2584
  • AFNOR: Z1NCDU31-27-03

Product standards

Seamless tube and pipe: ASTM B 668, EN 10216-5, SEW 400 (Feb 1991), SS 14 25 84,
NFA 49-217
Plate, sheet and strip: ASTM B 709, EN 10088-2, SS 14 25 84
Bar steel: EN 10088-3, EN 10272, SS 14 25 84
Fittings: ASTM A 403 (chemical composition and mechanical properties according to ASTM B668)

Approvals

  • Approved by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) for use in accordance with ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, section III, section I (Code Case 1325-18) and section VIII, division 1.
  • VdTÜV-Werkstoffblatt 483 (Austenitischer Walz- und Schmiedestahl)
  • NACE MR 0103 (Materials Resistant to Sulfide Stress Cracking in Corrosive Petroleum Refining Environments)
  • NACE MR0175/ISO 15156 (sulfide stress cracking resistant material for oil field equipment)

Chemical composition (nominal)

Chemical composition (nominal) %
C Si Mn P S Cr Ni Mo Cu N
≤0.020 ≤0.7 ≤2.0 ≤0.020 ≤0.010 27 31 3.5 1.0 ≤0.1

Chemical composition (nominal) %

C Si Mn P S Cr Ni Mo Cu
≤0.020 ≤0.6 ≤2.0 ≤0.025 ≤0.010 27 31 3.5 1.0

Applications

Due to its outstanding corrosion properties, Sanicro® 28 can be used in the most diverse environments. Listed below are a few examples of applications for which this alloy is particularly suitable.

Phosphoric acid

Today, Sanicro® 28 is the most widely used metallic material for evaporator tubes in the manufacture of phosphoric acid by the "wet " method. Several units have now been in service for more than 10 years. The graphite heat exchangers, replaced by Sanicro® 28, often had repeated problems with broken tubes and loss of production.

Sulphuric acid

Sanicro® 28 is a suitable material for piping and heat exchangers, particularly at concentrations of between 40 and 70% of deaerated acid and over 85%. Sanicro® 28 has approximately the same resistance as Alloy C in concentrated acid (98% H2SO4).

Oil and gas

Sanicro® 28 is used for production tubing, casing and liners in deep, sour gas wells. The material is also recommended for oil wells with a corrosive environment. For these purposes, tubes are supplied cold rolled with high strength. In the solution annealed condition, Sanicro® 28 is also used as piping for transporting of corrosive oil and gas and for heat exchangers in treatment facilities. Sanicro® 28 wirelines are used for lowering tools and controlling instruments in deep oil and gas wells.

Fluoride-bearing media

Fluoride-bearing off-gases can form during the manufacture of phosphoric acid and mixed fertilizers. These off-gases must be disposed of for environmental reasons. Sanicro® 28 is ideal for this purpose. Tests have shown it to be preferable to higher alloyed CrNiMo grades for the recovery of fluoride-bearing gypsum.

Nuclear power plants

Due to its high resistance to SCC, pitting and crevice corrosion, Sanicro® 28 has been selected for heat exchangers in nuclear power plants.

Seawater and chloride-bearing cooling water

Its high resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion makes Sanicro® 28 a very suitable material for seawater-carrying piping and seawater-cooled heat exchangers. This is confirmed by practical experience.

Sanicro® 28 has replaced nickel alloys, CuNi, bimetallic tubes and coated carbon steel tubes, which failed due to corrosion. The performance of Sanicro® 28 has been excellent.

In seawater-cooled heat exchangers and heat exchangers that work with chloride-bearing cooling water, Sanicro® 28 offers high corrosion resistance to both the water and the cooled medium.

When a seawater-cooled plant is shut down, there is no need to drain the piping system or flush with fresh water, provided that the shutdown period is shorter than one month and the water temperature is lower than 30°C (85°F).

The duplex stainless steel SAF™ 2507 is more resistant than Sanicro® 28 in sea water.

Corrosion resistance

General corrosion

Sanicro® 28 was originally developed for use in the manufacture of phosphoric acid, especially for heat exchangers in the concentration unit, where corrosive conditions are at their worst.

Phosphoric acid, manufactured by the "wet" method, contains varying concentrations of impurities derived from the raw material, the phosphate rock. The most dangerous of these impurities are chlorides, Cl , and fluorides in free form, F . Laboratory tests carried out in wet process phosphoric acid have shown that Sanicro® 28 is far more resistant to impurities of this kind than other high alloy materials. Figure 1 shows the corrosion rate in contaminated phosphoric acid at different chloride concentrations.

Temperature is another factor that has a great influence on corrosion. See figure 2.

Laboratory tests at 200°C (390°F) in contaminated 95% super phosphoric acid gave the following corrosion rates after 20 days: Sanicro® 28, 0.03 mm/year (1.2 mpy); Alloy 904L, 0.10 mm/year (4.0 mpy); UNS N08020, 0.23 mm/year (9.2 mpy); Alloy G, 0.03 mm/year (1.2 mpy).
Table 1 Chemical compositions of materials tested

Material Chemical Composition Nominal, %
C Cr Ni Mo Cu W Co Others
max
Sanicro® 28 0.02 27 31 3.5 1.0 - - -
Alloy 904L 0.02 20 25 4.5 1.5 - - -
UNS N08020 0.07 20 34 2.5 3.3 - - Nb
Alloy 825 0.05 21.5 42 3 2.3 - - Ti
Alloy G 0.03 22 45 6.5 2 1.0 2.5 Nb
Alloy C 0.08 15.5 54 16 - 4 2.5 -

Figure 1. Corrosion rate in contaminated phosphoric acid at different chloride concentrations 100°C (210°F). Comparison of Sanicro 28 and other alloys (chemical compositions given in table 1).

Figure 2. Corrosion rate in contaminated phosphoric acid at different temperatures for Sanicro 28 and some other alloys (chemical compositions given in table 1).

Figure 3 is an isocorrosion diagram for Sanicro® 28, Alloy 904L and ASTM 316L in deaerated sulfuric acid. As can be seen from the figure, Sanicro® 28 is more resistant than the other alloys. Naturally aerated sulfuric acid is more corrosive than deaerated acid in the intermediate concentration range. Sanicro® 28 exhibits very good corrosion resistance in concentrated acid.

Figure 3. Isocorrosion diagram for Sanicro 28, Alloy 904L and ASTM 316L, in deaerated sulfuric acid. The curves represent a corrosion rate of 0.1 mm/year (4 mpy).

Sulfuric acid is sometimes contaminated with chlorides which increases the corrosivity of the solution. However, Sanicro® 28 has good resistance, better than 904L, also in chloride contaminated sulfuric acid, especially at high concentrations. Above about 20% sulfuric acid Sanicro® 28 is even more resistant than the super-duplex stainless steel SAF™ 2507, see isocorrosion diagram in figure 4.

Sanicro® 28 is more resistant to hydrochloric acid than stainless steels with lower chromium and molybdenum contents and can, therefore, be used to advantage in cases where chemical process solutions are contaminated with hydrochloric acid, see isocorrosion diagram in figure 5.

Figure 4. Isocorrosion diagram for Sanicro® 28 in sulfuric acid containing 2000 ppm chloride ions at a corrosion rate of 0.1 mm/year (4 mpy).

Sanicro® 28 resists hydrofluoric and hydrofluosilicic acid very well and can be used where these acids occur as impurities (see corrosion diagram for hydrofluoric acid, figure 6). Both Sanicro® 28 and AISI 316L are completely resistant to pure acetic acid at all temperatures and concentrations at atmospheric pressure. However, at elevated temperatures and pressures, AISI 316L will corrode while Sanicro® 28 will remain resistant. Acetic acid is often contaminated with formic acid, which renders it more corrosive. Laboratory tests show that Sanicro® 28 is more resistant than AISI 316 and AISI 317L in such solutions.

Sanicro® 28 is far more resistant to formic acid than conventional stainless steels of the AISI 316L type and more resistant than 904L, see isocorrosion diagram in figure 7. In nitric acid Sanicro® 28 performs also very well. In test according to ASTM A262 Practice C (Huey test, 5x48 h in boiling 65% HNO3) corrosion rates lower than 0.15 mm/year (6 mpy) are obtained.

The high alloying contents of chromium and nickel give Sanicro® 28 considerably better resistance to sodium hydroxide than standard stainless steels of the type AISI 304 and AISI 316. At moderate temperatures and concentrations, Sanicro® 28 is a suitable alternative to pure nickel, which may be attacked by erosion corrosion.

At high temperatures the general corrosion rate increases. The risk of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) also increases when chlorides are present. Table 2 and 3 demonstrate the good resistance of Sanicro® 28 against general corrosion and SCC in sodium hydroxide contaminated with chlorides.

Table 2. SCC in boiling 43% NaOH + 6.7% NaCl, 142°C (288°F), 500h.

Grade SCC
Sanicro® 28 No
Alloy 800 Yes, cracks <120μm
Alloy 904L
Yes, cracks <150μm

Table 3. General corrosion in NaOH and in NaOH+NaCl, mm/year.

Grade 28% 28% 43% 43%
NaOH NaOH+ NaOH NaOH+
8% NaCl 6.7% NaCl
99 °C
(210 °F)
135 °C
(275 °F)
135 °C
(275 °F)
135 °C
(275 °F)
Sanicro® 28 0.008 0.008 0.074 0.045
Alloy 800 0.011 0.013 0.397 0.283
Alloy 904L 0.013 0.018 0.301
0.349

As can be seen, Sanicro® 28 is superior to both Alloy 800 and Alloy 904L.

Figure 5. Isocorrosion in hydrochloric acid. The curves repesent a corrosion rate of 0.1 mm/year (4 mpy).

Figure 6. Corrosion rates in hydrofluoric acid at 20°C (68°F) for Sanicro 28, Alloy 904L and AISI 316.<

Figure 7. Isocorrosion diagram for Sanicro 28 and other alloys in formic acid at a corrosion rate of 0.1 mm/year (4 mpy).

Pitting corrosion

Sanicro® 28 can withstand very high temperatures in aggressive environments without being attacked by pitting. Figure 8 shows the critical pitting temperature (CPT) for some alloys in chloride-bearing water with a salinity comparable to that of sea water. The figure shows that Sanicro® 28 has a higher critical pitting temperature (CPT) than Alloy 904L and Alloy 825 even in acidic chloride solutions. The curves are displaced at higher temperatures in solutions with lower salinities.

Crevice corrosion

Laboratory tests show that Sanicro® 28 has good resistance to crevice corrosion. In tests according to ASTM G-48 method B (6% iron(III)chloride), the material exhibited better resistance than Alloy 825.

Stress corrosion cracking

Ordinary austenitic steels of the AISI 304 and AISI 316 types are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in chloride bearing solutions at temperatures above about 60°C (140°F). This susceptibility declines with increasing nickel content. Chromium contents above 20% can also be beneficial. Sanicro® 28, which is alloyed with 27% Cr and 31% Ni, exhibits very good resistance to SCC, both in laboratory tests and in practice. This is demonstrated in figure 9, which shows results of SCC tests in a 40% calcium chloride solution.

Tensile specimens which were spring-loaded to stresses close to the proof strength and tested for SCC in aerated water at temperatures of up to 200–250°C (390–480°F), were not attacked, see figure 10. These tests were performed in autoclaves with an oxygen content in the water of 4.6 to 10 ppm and a pH-value at room temperature of 4.5-7.1. The testing time was 1000 hours. The curve for AISI 316/316L and AISI 304/304L is based on experimental data and practical experience.

Sanicro® 28 also displays very good resistance to SCC in environments where hydrogen sulfide is present together with chlorides. This is true for both solution annealed and cold worked material, as well as for welded joints. For further information, see Alleima R&D lecture S-58-7-ENG.

Figure 8. Critical pitting temperature (CPT) at +400 mV SCE for different alloys in synthetic seawater (3% NaCl), at different pH values (chemical compositions give in table 1).

Figure 9. Results of stress corrosion cracking tests on different steel grades in 40% CaCl<sub>2</sub>, at 100°C (210°F), pH = 6.5.

Captions=Figure 10. A compilation of laboratory test data and practical results for different stainless steels in aerated (about 8 ppm 0<sub>2</sub>), aqueous chloride environments.

Intergranular corrosion

The TTC diagram, figure 11, shows results of intergranular corrosion testing according to ASTM G-28 (120 hours in boiling iron(III)sulphate and sulfuric acid solution). As the figure illustrates, Sanicro® 28 can be kept in the critical interval of 600-700°C (1100-1300°F) for at least 30 minutes without intergranular corrosion occurring in this highly corrosive medium. As can be seen in figure 11, Alloy 904L is more susceptible to intergranular corrosion than Sanicro® 28. In normal welding operations, heat input to the parent metal takes place for a much shorter time than 30 minutes. This means that the risk of intergranular attack after welding of Sanicro® 28 is minimal, which is also verified by tests on welded specimens.

Figure 11. TTC diagram for Sanicro 28 with two different carbon contents and for Alloy 904L (Sandvik 2RK65). The curves repesent normal limit values for the carbon content.

Fabrication

Bending

The excellent formability of Sanicro® 28 permits cold bending to very small bending radii. Annealing is not normally necessary after cold bending.

For operating temperatures over 400°C (800°F), heat treatment should be carried out after bending to ensure good ductility after prolonged service times.

Expanding

Sanicro® 28 is expanded into tube sheets in the same way as standard austenitic stainless steels.

Machining

The machining of Sanicro® 28, as with other stainless steels, requires an adjustment of tooling data and machining method, in order to achieve satisfactory results. Compared to Sanmac® 316/316L, the cutting speed must be reduced by approximately 50-55% when turning Sanicro® 28 with coated, cemented carbide tools. Much the same applies to other operations. Feeds should only be reduced slightly and with care.

Detailed recommendations for the choice of tools and cutting data are provided in the brochure S-02909-ENG. Data should be selected as for steel grade Sanmac® 316/316L, while taking into account the provisions above.

Forms of supply

Seamless tube – Finishes and dimensions

Seamless tube and pipe is supplied in dimensions up to 260 mm outside diameter in the solution annealed and white-pickled condition, or solution annealed in a bright annealing process. Seamless tubes are available from stock in ANSI pipe and heat exchanger tube sizes. Details of our manufacturing and stock programme are given in catalogue S-110-ENG.

Using modern bending equipment, Alleima can bend tubes to customers' particular requirements and, if required, anneal after bending.

Materials for oil and gas production

Cold worked seamless tube and pipe

For production tubing and casing in oil and gas production. Sanicro® 28 is supplied cold worked with high strength properties (Sanicro® 28-110 and Sanicro® 28-125). Specific Oil and Gas information is available on request.

Other forms of supply

  • Welded tube and pipe
  • Strip, annealed or cold rolled to different degrees of hardness
  • Bar steel
  • Plate and sheet
  • Forged products
  • Cast products
  • Fittings

Further details concerning sizes and finishes are available on request.

Heat treatment

Tubes are delivered in the heat treated condition. If another heat treatment is needed after further processing, the following is recommended.

Solution annealing
1100-1160°C (2010-2120°F), 10-30 minutes, quenching in water. Thin walled tubes can also be cooled rapidly in air.

Mechanical properties

The following values apply to solution annealed material, unless otherwise stated.

At 20°C (68°F)

Metric units
Proof strength Tensile strength Elong. Hardness
Rp0.2a Rp1.0a Rm Ab A2" HRB
MPa MPa MPa % %
≥220 ≥250 550-750 ≥40 ≥40 ≤90
Imperial units
Proof strength Tensile strength Elong Hardness
Rp0.2a Rp1.0a Rm Ab A2" HRB
ksi ksi ksi % %
≥32 ≥36 80-109 ≥40 ≥40 ≤90

1 MPa = 1 N/mm2
a) Rp0.2 and Rp1.0 correspond to 0.2% offset and 1.0% offset yield strength, respectively.
b) Based on L0 = 5.65 √S0 where L0 is the original gauge length and S0 the original cross-sectional area.

Tube, pipe, plate and sheet with material thicknesses >20 mm (0.787") and bar with diameters >100 mm (3.937")

Metric units
Proof strength Tensile strength Elong. Hardness
Rp0.2a Rp1.0a Rm Ab A2" HRB
MPa MPa MPa % %
≥200 ≥230 550-750 ≥40 ≥40 ≤90
Imperial units
Proof strength Tensile strength Elong Hardness
Rp0.2a Rp1.0a Rm Ab A2" HRB
ksi ksi ksi % %
≥29 ≥33 80-109 ≥40 ≥40 ≤90

Seamless cold worked tube and pipe

Intended for oil and gas production

Proof strength Tensile strength Elong. Hardness
Rp0.2a) Rm A2" HRC
MPa ksi MPa ksi %
Sanicro 28-110 ≥760 ≥110 ≥795 ≥115 11 ≤35
Sanicro 28-125 ≥860 ≥125 ≥895 ≥130 10 ≤37

Impact strength

Due to its austenitic microstructure, Sanicro® 28 has very good impact strength, both at room temperature and at cryogenic temperatures.

Tests have demonstrated that the steel fulfils the requirements according to the European standards EN 13445-2 (UFPV-2) ( min. 60 J (44 ft-lb) at -270 oC (-455 oF)) and EN 10216-5 (min. 60 J (44 ft-lb) at -196 oC (-320oF)).

At high temperatures

Due to embrittlement caused by precipitation of intermetallic phases, Sanicro® 28 should not be exposed to temperatures above 600 °C (1110 °F) for prolonged periods.

According to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Table 1B, Sanicro® 28 is acceptable to 600ºF (316ºC) for Section III construction and 850ºF (455ºC) for Section I (Code Case 1325-18) and Section VIII, Division 1 construction.

Tube, pipe, plate and sheet with material thicknesses <20 mm (0.787") and bar with diameters <100 mm (3.937")

Metric units
Temperature Proof strength Tensile strength
Rp0.2 Rp1.0 Rm
°C MPa MPa MPa
min min min
50 200 230 550
100 190 220 510
150 175 205 470
200 160 190 440
250 155 185 410
300 150 180 390
350 145 175 380
400 135 165 370
450 125 155 360
500 120 150 350
550 115 145 340
Imperial units
Temperature Proof strength Tensile strength
Rp0.2 Rp1.0 Rm
°F ksi ksi ksi
min min min
120 29 33 80
210 28 32 74
300 25 30 68
390 23 28 64
480 22 27 59
570 22 26 57
660 21 25 55
750 20 24 54
840 18 22 52
930 17 22 51
1020 17 21 49

Tube, pipe, plate and sheet with material thicknesses >20 mm (0.787") and bar with diameters >100 mm (3.937")

Metric units
Temperature Proof strength Tensile strength
Rp0.2 Rp1.0 Rm
°C MPa MPa MPa
min min min
50 180 205 550
100 160 190 510
150 150 180 470
200 140 170 440
250 130 160 410
300 120 150 390
350 115 140 380
400 110 135 370
450 105 130 360
500 100 125 350
550 95 120 340
Imperial units
Temperature Proof strength Tensile strength
Rp0.2 Rp1.0 Rm
°F ksi ksi ksi
min min min
120 26 30 80
210 23 28 74
300 22 26 68
390 20 25 64
480 19 23 59
570 17 22 57
660 17 20 55
750 16 20 54
840 15 19 52
930 15 18 51
1020 14 17 49

Creep strength

Metric units
Temperature Creep rupture strength
10 000 h 100 000 h
°C MPa MPa
approx. approx.
550 262 193
600 186 146
650 122 93
700 82 62
Imperial units
Temperature Creep rupture strength
10 000 h 100 000 h
°F ksi ksi
approx. approx.
1020 38 28
1110 27 21
1200 18 13
1300 12 9

Physical properties

Density: 8.0 g/cm3, 0.29 lb/in3

Relative magnetic permeability

1.003 (approximate value)

Thermal conductivity
Temperature, °CW/(m °C)Temperature, °FBtu/(ft h °F)
20 10 68 5.5
100 13 200 7
200 14 400 8.5
300 17 600 9.5
400 19 800 11
500 21 1000 12.5
600 24 1100 13.5
Specific heat capacity
Temperature, °CJ/(kg °C)Temperature, °FBtu/(lb °F)
20 460 68 0.11
100 480 200 0.12
200 500 400 0.12
300 515 600 0.12
400 535 800 0.13
500 555 1000 0.13
600
590 1100 0.14
Resistivity
Temperature, °CμΩmTemperature, °FμΩin.
20 0.99 68 39.0
100 1.07 200 42.0
200 1.16 400 46.0
300 1.22 600 48.5
400 1.25 800 49.5
Thermal expansion, mean values in temperature ranges (x10-6)
Temperature, °CPer °CTemperature, °FPer °F
30-100 15 86-200 8
30-200 15.5 86-400 8.5
30-300 16 86-600 9
30-400 16 86-800 9
30-500 16.5 86-1000 9
30-600 16.5 86-1200 9.5
30-700 17 86-1300 9.5
Modulus of elasticity (x103)
Temperature, °CMPaTemperature, °Fksi
20 195 68 28.3
100 190 200 27.6
200 182 400 26.3
300 174 600 25.1
400 166 800 23.8

Welding

The weldability of Sanicro® 28 is good. Suitable methods of fusion welding are manual metal-arc welding (MMA/SMAW) and gas-shielded arc welding, with the TIG/GTAW method as first choice.

In common with all fully austenitic stainless steels, Sanicro® 28 has low thermal conductivity and high thermal expansion. Welding plans should therefore be carefully selected in advance, so that distortions of the welded joint are minimized. If residual stresses are a concern, solution annealing can be performed after welding.

For Sanicro® 28, heat-input of <1.0 kJ/mm and interpass temperature of <150°C (300°F) are recommended. A string bead welding technique should be used.

Recommended filler metals

TIG/GTAW or MIG/GMAW welding

ISO 14343 S 27 31 4 Cu L/AWS A5.9 ER383 (e.g. Exaton 27.31.4.LCu)

MMA/SMAW welding

ISO 3581 E 27 31 4 Cu L R/AWS A5.4 E383-16 (e.g. Exaton 27.31.4.LCuR)

Disclaimer: Recommendations are for guidance only, and the suitability of a material for a specific application can be confirmed only when we know the actual service conditions. Continuous development may necessitate changes in technical data without notice. This datasheet is only valid for Alleima materials.