Alleima® 3R60 Tube and pipe, seamless

Datasheet updated

2022-06-30 08:50
(supersedes all previous editions)

Alleima® 3R60 is an austenitic chromium-nickel steel with minimum 2.5% molybdenum and a low carbon content.

Alleima® 3R60 is also available in a variant for the urea industry, Alleima 3R60 Urea Grade.

Standards

  • ASTM: TP316L, TP316
  • UNS: S31603, S31600
  • EN Number: 1.4435, 1.4436
  • EN Name: X 2 CrNiMo 18-14-3, X 3 CrNiMo 17-13-3
  • W.Nr.: 1.4435, 1.4436
  • DIN: X 2 CrNiMo 18 14 3, X 5 CrNiMo 17 13 3
  • SS: 2353, 2343
  • AFNOR: Z 2 CND 17.13
  • BS: 316S13
  • JIS: SU316LTP, 316TP, SU316LTB, 316TB

Product standards

  • ASTM A213, A269 and A312
  • JIS G3459
  • JIS G3463
  • EN 10216-5
  • BS 3605, 3606
  • DIN 17456, 17458
  • NFA 49-117*, 49-217*

* Mo content 2.00-2.40%

Chemical composition (nominal)

Chemical composition (nominal) %
C Si Mn P S Cr Ni Mo
≤0.030 0.4 1.7 ≤0.040 ≤0.015 17.5 13 2.6

Chemical composition (nominal) %

C Si Mn P S Cr Ni Mo
≤0.030 0.4 1.7 ≤0.040 ≤0.015 17.5 13 2.6

Applications

Alleima® 3R60 is used for a wide range of industrial applications where steels of type ASTM 304 and 304L have insufficient corrosion resistance. Typical examples are: heat exchangers, condensers, pipelines, cooling and heating coils in the chemical, petrochemical, pulp and paper and food industries.

Corrosion resistance

Alleima® 3R60 has good resistance in:

  • Organic acids at high concentrations and moderate temperatures
  • Inorganic acids, e.g. phosphoric and sulfuric acids, at moderate concentrations and temperatures. The steel can also be used in sulfuric acid of concentrations above 90% at low temperature.
  • Salt solutions, e.g. sulfates, sulfides and sulfites
  • Caustic environments

Stress corrosion cracking

Austenitic steels are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. This may occur at temperatures above about 60°C (140°F) if the steel is subjected to tensile stresses and at the same time comes into contact with certain solutions, particularly those containing chlorides. Such service conditions should therefore be avoided. Conditions when plants are shut down must also be considered, as the condensates which are then formed can develop conditions that lead to both stress corrosion cracking and pitting.

In applications demanding high resistance to stress corrosion cracking, austenitic-ferritic steels, such as SAF 2304® or SAF 2205™ are recommended. See data sheets S-1871-ENG and S-1874-ENG.

Intergranular corrosion

Alleima® 3R60 has a low carbon content and therefore better resistance to intergranular corrosion than steels of type AISI 316. The TTC-diagram, Figure 1, shows the result of corrosion testing for 24 hours in boiling Strauss solution (12% sulfuric acid, 6% copper sulphate). The resistance to grain boundary attack is much better for AISI 316L than for AISI 316. This is an advantage in complicated welding operations.

Figure 1. TTC-diagram for Sandvik 3R60 (AISI 316L) and AISI 316.

Pitting and crevice corrosion

Resistance to these types of corrosion improves with increasing molybdenum content. Alleima® 3R60, containing about 2.6% Mo, has substantially higher resistance to attack than these steels of type AISI 304 and also better resistance than ordinary AISI 316/316L steels with 2.1% Mo.

Gas corrosion

Alleima® 3R60 can be uses in

  • Air up to 850°C (1560°F)
  • Steam up to 750°C (1380°F)

Creep behavior should also be taken into account when using the steel in the creep range.

In flue gases containing sulfur, the corrosion resistance is reduced. In such environments the steel can be used at temperatures up to 600-750 °C (1100-1380 °F) depending on service conditions. Factors to consider are whether the atmosphere is oxidizing or reducing, i.e. the oxygen content, and whether impurities such as sodium and vanadium are present.

Bending

Annealing after cold bending is not normally necessary, but this point must be decided with regard to the degree of bending and the operating conditions. Heat treatment, if any, should take the form of stress relieving or solution annealing, see under Heat treatment.

Hot bending is carried out at 1100-850°C (2010-1560°F) and should be followed by solution annealing.

Forms of supply

Seamless tube and pipe- Finishes and dimensions

Seamless tube and pipe in Alleima® 3R60 is supplied in dimensions up to 260 mm outside diameter in the solution annealed and white-pickled condition or solution annealed in a bright-annealing process.

Other forms of supply

We can also deliver other product forms from stock in a grade corresponding to ASTM 316L mainly:

  • Welded tube and pipe
  • Fittings and flanges
  • Bar steel

Sizes in stock

Seamless tube is stocked in a wide range of sizes according to ISO. Heat exchanger and instrumentation tubes are also stocked in BWG-and SWG-sizes. Hollow bar is stocked in a large number of sizes as SANMAC 316L (see data sheet S-1840-ENG). Details of our manufacturing programme are given in catalogue S-110-ENG.

Heat treatment

Tubes are delivered in heat treated condition. If additional heat treatment is needed after further processing the following is recommended.

Stress relieving

850-950°C (1560-1740°F), cooling in air

Solution annealing

1000-1100°C (1830-2010°F), followed by rapid cooling in air or water.

Mechanical properties

For tube and pipe with wall thickness greater than 10 mm (0.4 in.) the proof strength may fall short of the stated values by about 10 MPa (1.4 ksi).

At 20°C

Metric units
Proof strength Tensile strength Elong. Hardness
Rp0.2a Rp1.0a Rm Ab A2"
MPa MPa MPa % % HRB
≥220 ≥250 515-690  ≥40c ≥35 ≤80

At 68°F

Imperial units
Proof strength Tensile strength Elong. Hardness
Rp0.2a Rp1.0a Rm Ab A2"
ksi ksi ksi % % HRB
≥32 ≥36 75-100 ≥40c ≥35 ≤80

1 MPa = 1 N/mm2
a) Rp0.2 and Rp1.0 correspond to 0.2% offset and 1.0% offset yield strength, respectively.
b) Based on L0 = 5.65 √S0 where L0 is the original gauge length and S0 the original cross-section area.
c) NFA 49-117, 49-217 with min 45% can be fulfilled on request.

Impact strength

Due to its austenitic microstructure, Alleima® 3R60 has very good impact strength both at room temperature and at cryogenic temperatures.

Tests have demonstrated that the steel fulfils the requirements according to the European standards EN 13445-2 (UFPV-2) ( (min. 60 J (44 ft-lb) at -270 oC (-455 oF) and EN 10216-5 (min. 60 J (44 ft-lb) at -196 oC (-320 oF).

At high temperatures

Metric units
Temperature
Proof strength
Rp0.2 Rp1.0
°C MPa MPa
min. min.
50 200 230
100 180 215
150 165 195
200 150 180
250 140 170
300 135 160
350 130 155
400 125 150
450 120 145
500 120 145
550 115 140
600
110
135
Imperial units
Temperature
Proof strength
Rp0.2 Rp1.0
°F ksi ksi
min. min.
200 26 31
400 21 26
600 19 23
800 18 21
1000 17 20
Creep-rupture strength (ISO-values)
Temperature 10 000 h 100 000 h
°C °F MPa ksi MPa ksi
approx. approx. approx. approx.
550 1020 255 37.0 177 25.7
575 1065 214 31.0 137 19.9
600 1110 172 24.9 108 15.7
625 1155 137 19.9 86 12.5
650 1200 108 15.7 64 9.3
675 1245 83 12.0 46 6.7
700 1290 64 9.3 33 4.8
725 1335 49 7.1 25 3.6
750 1380 37 5.4 18 2.6

Physical properties

Density: 8.0 g/cm3, 0.29 lb/in3

Thermal conductivity
Temperature, °CW/m °CTemperature, °FBtu/ft h °F
20 14 68 8
100 15 200 8.5
200 17 400 10
300 18 600 10.5
400 20 800 11.5
500 21 1000 12.5
600 23 1100 13
Specific heat capacity
Temperature, °CJ/kg °CTemperature, °FBtu/lb °F
20 485 68 0.11
100 500 200 0.12
200 515 400 0.12
300 525 600 0.13
400 540 800 0.13
500 555 1000 0.13
600 575 1100 0.14
Thermal expansion 1)
Temperature, °CPer °CTemperature, °FPer °F
30-100 16.5 86-200 9.5
30-200 17 86-400 9.5
30-300 17.5 86-600 10
30-400 18 86-800 10
30-500 18 86-1000 10
30-600 18.5 86-1200 10.5
30-700 18.5 86-1400 10.5

1) Mean values in temperature ranges (x10-6)

Modulus of elasticity 1)
Temperature, °CMPaTemperature, °Fksi
20 200 68 29.0
100 194 200 28.2
200 186 400 26.9
300 179 600 25.8
400 172 800 24.7
500 165 1000 23.5

1) (x103)

Welding

The weldability of Alleima® 3R60 is good. Welding must be carried out without preheating and subsequent heat treatment is normally not required. Suitable methods of fusion welding are manual metal-arc welding (MMA/SMAW) and gas-shielded arc welding, with the TIG/GTAW method as first choice.

For Alleima® 3R60, heat input of <2.0 kJ/mm and interpass temperature of <150°C (300°F) are recommended.

Recommended filler metals

TIG/GTAW or MIG/GMAW welding

ISO 14343 S 19 12 3 L / AWS A5.9 ER316L (e.g. Exaton 19.12.3.L)

MMA/SMAW welding

ISO 3581 E 19 12 3 L R / AWS A5.4 E316L-17(e.g. Exaton 19.12.3.LR)

ISO 14343 S 19 12 3 L / AWS A5.9 ER316L (e.g. Exaton 19.12.3.L) wire or strip electrodes are recommended for overlay welding of tube sheets and high-pressure vessels in cases where corrosion resistance, equal to that of Alleima® 3R60, is required.

Disclaimer: Recommendations are for guidance only, and the suitability of a material for a specific application can be confirmed only when we know the actual service conditions. Continuous development may necessitate changes in technical data without notice. This datasheet is only valid for Alleima materials.