Sanmac® 316/316L Billets

Datasheet updated

2022-05-10 07:47
(supersedes all previous editions)

Sanmac® 316/316L is a molybdenum-alloyed austenitic chromium-nickel steel with improved machinability.


  • ASTM: 316, 316L
  • UNS: S31600, S31603
  • EN Number: 1.4401, 1.4404
  • EN Name: X 5 CrNiMo 17-12-2, X 2 CrNiMo 17-12-2
  • W.Nr.: 1.4401, 1.4404

Product standards

  • EN 10088-3
  • ASTM A-314

Suitable for the production of flanges etc. according to ASTM A-182 Grade F316/316L.


Status according to EN 10 204/3.1

Chemical composition (nominal) %

C Si Mn P S Cr Ni Mo
≤0.030 0.6 1.8 ≤0.040 ≤0.030 16.5 11 2.1


Sanmac® 316/316L is used for a wide range of industrial applications, where steels of type AISI 304/304L have insufficient corrosion resistance.

Industrial categories Typical applications
Chemical industry Flanges
Food industry Valves
Petrochemical industry Fittings
Pulp and paper industry Couplings
Nuclear industry Rings
Bolts and nuts

Corrosion resistance

General corrosion

Sanmac® 316/316L has good resistance in:

  • Organic acids at high concentrations and moderate temperatures
  • Inorganic acids, e.g. phosphoric and sulphuric acids, at moderate concentrations and temperatures. The steel can also be used in sulphuric acid with concentrations above 90% at low temperature
  • Salt solutions, e.g. sulphates, sulphides and sulphites
  • Caustic environments

Stress corrosion cracking

Austenitic steels are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. This may occur at temperatures above about 60°C (140°F), if the steel is subjected to tensile stresses and at the same time comes into contact with certain solutions, particularly those containing chlorides. In applications demanding high resistance to stress corrosion cracking, we recommend the austenitic-ferritic steel Sanmac® SAF 2205.

Intergranular corrosion

Sanmac® 316/316L has a low carbon content and, therefore, good resistance to intergranular corrosion.

Pitting and crevice corrosion

Resistance to these types of corrosion improves with an increasing molybdenum content. Thus, the molybdenum-alloyed Sanmac® 316L/316L has substantially higher resistance to attack than steels of type AISI 304 and 304L.

Gas corrosion

Sanmac® 316/316L can be used in

  • Air up to 850°C (1560°F)
  • Steam up to 750°C (1380°F)

Creep behavior should also be taken into account when using the steel in the creep range. In flue gases containing sulphur, corrosion resistance is reduced. In such environments, the steel can be used at temperatures up to 600–750°C (1110–1380°F), depending on service conditions. Factors to consider are whether the atmosphere is oxidizing or reducing, i.e. the oxygen content, and whether impurities, such as sodium and vanadium, are present.

Forms of supply

Sizes and tolerances

Round-cornered square, as well as round billets, are produced in a wide range of sizes according to the following tables. Larger sizes offered on request.

Surface conditions

Square billets

Unground, spot ground or fully ground condition.

Round billets

Peel turned or black condition.

Square billets
80 +/-2 4 - 6.3
100, 114, 126, 140, 150 +/-3 4 - 6.3
160, 180, 195, 200 +/-4 4 - 6.3
>200 - 350 +/-5 3 - 5.3

Sizes and tolerances apply to the rolled/forged condition.

Peel turned round billets
75 - 200 (5 mm interval) +/-1 max 10
>200 - 450 +/-3 3 - 8
Unground round billets
77 - 112 (5 mm interval) +/-2 max 10
124, 134 +/-2 max 10
127, 147, 157 +/-2 max 10
142, 152, 163 +/-2 max 10
168, 178, 188 +/-2 max 10
183, 193 +/-2 max 10

Other products

Solid bar (Sanmac)
Hollow bar (Sanmac)

Heat treatment

Sanmac® 316/316L billets are delivered in the hot worked condition. If an another heat treatment is needed after further processing, the following is recommended.

Solution annealing

1040–1100°C (1900–2010°F), rapid cooling in air or water.

Mechanical properties

Testing is performed on separately solution annealed and quenched test pieces. The following figures apply to material in the solution annealed and quenched condition.

At 20°C (68°F)

Metric units
Proof strength Tensile strength Elong. Contr. HB
Rp0.2a) Rp1.0a) Rm Ab) Z
MPa MPa MPa % %

≥205 ≥240 515-690 ≥40 ≥50 170
Imperial units
Proof strength Tensile strength Elong. Contr. HB
Rp0.2a) Rp1.0a) Rm Ab) Z
MPa MPa MPa % %

≥29.5 ≥35 74.5-100 ≥40 ≥50 170

1 MPa = 1 N/mm2
a) Rp0.2 and Rp1.0 correspond to 0.2% offset and 1.0% offset yield strengths, respectively.
b) Based on L0 = 5.65√S0 , where L0 is the original gauge length and S0 the original cross-sectional area.

The impact energy (Charpy V) at 20°C (68°F) is min 100 J (74 ft-lb).

At high temperatures

Metric units
Temperature Proof strength Tensile strength
Rp.02 Rp1.0 Rm
°C MPa MPa MPa
min. min. min.
100 155 190 450
200 127 155 400
300 110 135 380
400 98 125 380
500 92 120 360
Imperial units
Temperature Proof strength Tensile strength
Rp.02 Rp1.0 Rm
°F ksi ksi ksi
min. min. min.
200 23.1 28.1 66.1
400 18.3 22.4 57.9
600 15.7 19.3 55.1
800 14.0 17.9 54.3
1000 13.1 17.4 48.9

Physical properties

Density: 7.9 g/cm3 , 0.29 lb/in3

Thermal conductivity
Temperature Temperature
°C W/m °C °F Btu/ft h °F
20 14 68 8
100 15 200 8.5
200 17 400 10
300 18 600 10.5
400 20 800 11.5
500 21 1000 12.5
600 23 1100 13
Specific heat capacity
Temperature Temperature
°C J/kg °C °F Btu/lb °F
20 485 68 0.11
100 500 200 0.12
200 515 400 0.12
300 525 600 0.13
400 540 800 0.13
500 555 1000 0.13
600 575 1100 0.14
Thermal expansion 1)
Temperature Temperature
°C Per °C °F Per °F
30-100 16.5 86-200 9.5
30-200 17 86-400 9.5
30-300 17.5 86-600 10
30-400 18 86-800 10
30-500 18 86-1000 10
30-600 18.5 86-1200 10.5
30-700 18.5 86-1400 10.5

1) Mean values in temperature ranges (x10-6)

Modulus of elasticity 1)
Temperature Temperature
°C MPa °F ksi
20 200 68 29.0
100 194 200 28.2
200 186 400 26.9
300 179 600 25.8
400 172 800 24.7
500 165 1000 23.5

1) (x103)

Hot working

Hot working should be carried out at a material temperature of 900-1200°C (1650-2190°F). Hot working of Sanmac® 316/316L should be followed by rapid cooling in air or in water. If additional heat treatment is needed, it should be carried out in accordance with the recommendations given for heat treatment.


The weldability of SANMAC® 316/316L is good. Suitable methods of fusion welding are manual metal-arc welding (MMA/SMAW) and gas-shielded arc welding, with the TIG/GTAW method as first choice. Preheating and post-weld heat treatment are normally not necessary.

Since this material is alloyed in such a way to improve machinability, the amount of surface oxides on the welded beads might be higher compared to standard 316/316L steels. This may lead to arc instability during TIG/GTAW welding, especially welding without filer material. However, the welding behavior of this material is the same as for standard 316/316L steels when welding with filler material.

For SANMAC® 316/316L, heat input of <2.0 kJ/mm and interpass temperature of <150°C (300°F) are recommended.

Recommended filler metals

TIG/GTAW or MIG/GMAW welding

ISO 14343 S 19 12 3 L / AWS A5.9 ER316L (e.g. Exaton 19.12.3.L)

MMA/SMAW welding

ISO 3581 E 19 12 3 L R / AWS A5.4 E316L-17(e.g. Exaton 19.12.3.LR)



Sanmac stands for Sandvik Machinability Concept. In Sanmac materials, machinability has been improved without jeopardizing properties, such as corrosion resistance and mechanical strength.
Improved machinability is brought about by:

  • Optimized non-metallic inclusions
  • Optimum chemical composition
  • Optimized process and production parameters

Machining chart

The diagram shows the ranges, within which data should be chosen in order to obtain a tool life of 10 minutes minimum, when machining the austenitic Sanmac® 316/316L. The ranges are limited in the event of low feeds, because of unacceptable chip breaking. In the case of high cutting speeds, plastic deformation is the most dominant cause of failure. When feed increases and the cutting speed falls, edge frittering (chipping) increases significantly. The diagram is applicable for short cutting times. For long, continuous cuts, cutting speeds should be reduced.

Figure 1. Machining chart for Sanmac® 316/316L.

The lowest recommended cutting speed is determined by the tendency of the material to stick to the insert (built-up edge), although the integrity of insert clamping and the stability of the machine are also of great significance.

It is important to conclude which wear mechanism is active, in order to optimize cutting data with the aid of the diagram.

Turning Sanmac® 316/316L

Recommended insert and cutting data (starting values)


Cutting data
Cutting speed
MF GC2015 0.15 250 Finishing, copy turning
MM GC2015 0.30 220 Medium machining
MM GC2025 0.30 190 Medium-to-rough machining under less stable conditions

Drilling Sanmac® 316/316L

The recommended methods for drilling give the most cost effective results for the respective diameter ranges. When producing holes with diameters larger than 58 mm, short hole drilling is used up to 58 mm, followed by internal turning, up to the desired diameter. Cutting data for internal turning should be chosen in accordance with the turning recommendations. The recommendations for drilling are applicable for a tool life of 30 minutes.

Short hole drilling, diameter 12.7 - 58 mm

Coromant U-drill, R416.2

Grade Cutting data
-53 Central insert
- -
-53 Peripheral insert
0.04-0.18 160
-53 Peripheral insert
0.04-0.18 200

* GC1120 for diameters below 17.5 mm
** stable conditions, otherwise use GC1020

Drilling with Alleima Coromant Delta C drill, diameter 3 - 12.7 mm

Code R415.5. Grade GC1220
(diameter range 3 - 20 mm)

Cutting data
0.08-0.22 50

* The lower feed value should be selected for smaller diameters

Drilling with high speed steel (HSS) drill

(diameter 1-3 mm)

Cutting data
0.03-0.09 8-15

* The lower feed value should be selected for smaller diameters
** The higher cutting speed should be selected for coated drills

Milling Sanmac® 316/316L

Use of optimum cutting data means that milling can be carried out at cutting speeds above those where there is a risk of built-up edge formation. Dry milling results in long tool life. If coolant is needed (e.g. when the surface cannot be reached in the dry condition), the cutting speed must be reduced by approximately 40-60% to prevent tool wear due to increased thermal load on the inserts.

Milling with CoroMill cutters (starting values for dry machining)
Roughing Geometry/Grade Cutting speed
Finishing Geometry/Grade Cutting speed
MM-2030 185 ML-2030 235

Threading Sanmac® 316/316L

Indexable inserts can be used for external thread cutting of all diameters. Threading with screw-cutting dies or die heads is economical only for small diameters. For internal threading with short and normal cutting lengths, thread cutting with indexable inserts is recommended above a hole diameter of 12 mm. For long cutting lengths, thread cutting with indexable inserts is recommended for hole diameters above 20 mm.

Thread turning

Due to the tendency of austenitic materials to work harden, radial infeed is recommended. A generous flow of cutting fluid should also be used, partly to obtain a reliable process and partly to guide the chip. The recommendations apply to a tool life of 30 minutes.

Grade Cutting speed
All-round GC1020 160

Thread tapping

Compared with uncoated threading taps, coated threading taps can improve productivity by up to 100%. For the advantages of coated threading taps to be realized, a generous flow of cooling fluid must be used. The recommendations apply to a tool life of 30 minutes.

Cutting speed

The higher range of cutting data should be chosen for coated threading taps

Sawing Sanmac® 316/316L

Cutting with bandsaws or cold saws gives the best cutting economy. If the demand for surface smoothness is great, circular sawing is preferable. Band sawing gives high productivity, is flexible and incurs low investment costs.

When band sawing Sanmac® 316/316L, the Sandflex Cobra type 3851 bimetallic bandsaw blades, which is available from Bahco Group (formerly Sandvik Saws and Tools), is recommended.

Tooth spacing should be selected according to the dimensions of the material to be cut, and stated in TPI (the number of teeth per in.). The TPI should be reduced for thicker dimensions. For a bar dimension of D = 150 mm, 2/3 TPI or 1/2 TPI is recommended.

Cutting speed

Feed is regulated to obtain a good chip form.

Disclaimer: Recommendations are for guidance only, and the suitability of a material for a specific application can be confirmed only when we know the actual service conditions. Continuous development may necessitate changes in technical data without notice. This datasheet is only valid for Alleima materials.