Datasheet updated

2024-01-11 10:29
(supersedes all previous editions)

Sanmac® 4435 is a molybdenum-alloyed austenitic chromium-nickel steel with improved machinability, with a guaranteed minimum molybdenum level of 2.5%.


  • ASTM: MT 316L, MT 316
  • UNS: S31603, S31600
  • EN Number: 1.4435, 1.4436
  • EN Name: X2CrNiMo18-14-3, X3CrNiMo17-13-3
  • JIS: SUS316TKA

Product standards

  • EN 10216-5*, EN 10297-2
  • ASTM A511
  • JIS G3446

* The leakage test is deferred to the finished component


JIS Approval No. SE9402 for Stainless Steel Tubes

Chemical composition (nominal) %

Si Mn P
Cr Ni Mo
≤0.030 0.2 1.8 ≤0.040 ≤0.017 17.5 12.5 2.6


Sanmac® 4435 is used in a wide range of industrial applications where steels of type ASTM 304/304L have insufficient corrosion resistance. Typical applications are :

  • Machines parts for tube and pipe fittings
  • Components for valves, pumps, heat exchangers and vessels
  • Different tubular shafts in chemical, petrochemical, fertilizer, pulp and paper and power industries as well as in the production of pharmaceuticals, foods and beverages

Corrosion resistance

General corrosion

Sanmac® 4435 has good resistance to:

  • Organic acids at high concentrations and temperatures, with the exception of formic acid and acids with corrosive contaminants
  • Inorganic acids, e.g. phosphoric acid, at moderate concentrations and temperatures, and sulfuric acid below 20% at moderate temperatures. The steel can also be used in sulfuric acid of concentrations above 90% at low temperature.
  • E.g. sulfates, sulfides and sulfites
  • Caustic environments

Intergranular corrosion

Sanmac® 4435 has a low carbon content and therefore better resistance to intergranular corrosion than other steels of type ASTM 316.

Pitting and crevice corrosion

Resistance to these types of corrosion improves with molybdenum content. Sanmac® 4435, containing approximately 2.6% molybdenum, has substantially higher resistance to attack than steels of type AISI 304 and also better resistance than ordinary ASTM 316/316L steels with 2.1% molybdenum.

Stress corrosion cracking

Austenitic steels are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. This may occur at temperatures above about 60°C (140°F) if the steel is subjected to tensile stresses and at the same time comes into contact with certain solutions, particularly those containing chlorides. In applications demanding high resistance to stress corrosion cracking, the austenitic-ferritic steels SAF™ 2304, Alleima® 10RE51 or Sanmac® SAF™ 2205 have higher resistance to stress corrosion cracking than 4435.

Gas corrosion

Sanmac® 4435 can be used in:

  • Air up to 850°C (1560°)
  • Steam up to 750°C (1380°F)

Creep behavior should also be taken into account when using the steel in the creep range .In flue gases containing sulphur, the corrosion resistance is reduced. In such environments Sanmac® 4435 can be used at temperatures up to 600-750°C (1110-1380°F) depending on service conditions.

Factors to consider are whether the atmosphere is oxidizing or reducing, i.e. the oxygen content, and whether impurities such as sodium and vanadium are present.

Forms of supply

Hollow bar-Finishes, dimensions and tolerances
Hollow bar Sanmac® 4435 is stocked in a large number of sizes up to 250 mm outside diameter in the solution-annealed and white-pickled condition. See catalogue S-110-ENG, S-029-ENG or S-02909-ENG.

Dimensions are given as outside and inside diameter with guaranteed component sizes after machining for OD<2.5 x OD.

Outside diameter +2 / -0 %, but minimum +1 / -0 mm
Inside diameter +0 / -2 %, but minimum +0 / -1 mm
Straightness +/-1.5mm/m
Better tolerances can be supplied to special order.

Other forms of supply

Steel with improved machinability, Sanmac®, is also available in round bar and billet.

Heat treatment

Hollow bar is delivered in heat treated condition.

If further heat treatment is needed after further processing the following is recommended:

Stress relieving
850-950°C (1560-1740°F)

Solution annealing
1000-1100°C (1830-2010°F), rapid cooling in air or water.

Mechanical properties

For hollow bar with wall thickness greater than 10 mm (0.4 in.) the proof strength may fall short of the stated values by approximately 10 MPa (1.4 ksi).

At 20°C (68°F)

Metric units
Proof strength Tensile strength Elong. Hardness
Rp0.2a Rp1.0a Rm Ab A2" HRB
MPa MPa MPa % %
≥220 ≥250 515-690 ≥45 ≥35 ≤90
Imperial units
Proof strength Tensile strength Elong. Hardness
Rp0.2a Rp1.0a Rm Ab A2" HRB
ksi ksi ksi % %
≥32 ≥36 75-100 ≥45 ≥35 ≤90

1 MPa = 1 N/mm2
a) Rp0.2  and Rp1.0 correspond to 0.2% offset and 1.0% offset yield strength, respectively.
b) Based on L0 = 5.65 ÖS0 where L0 is the original gauge length and S the original cross-section area.

Impact strength

Due to its austenitic micro structure, Sanmac® 4435 has very good impact strength both at room temperature and at cryogenic temperatures.

Tests have demonstrated that the steel fulfils the requirements according to the European standards EN 13445-2 (UFPV-2) ( (min. 60 J (44 ft-lb) at -270 oC (-455 oF) and EN 10216-5 (min. 60 J (44 ft-lb) at -196 oC (-320 oF).

At high temperatures
Proof strength
°C Rp0.2 Rp1.0
min. min.
50 200 230
100 180 215
150 165 195
200 150 180
250 140 170
300 135 160
350 130 155
400 125 150
450 120 145
500 120 145
550 115 140
600 110 135
Imperial units
Proof strength
°F Rp0.2
ksi ksi
min. min.
200 26 31
400 21 26
600 19 23
800 18 21
1000 17 20

Physical properties

Density: 8.0 g/cm3, 0.29 lb/in3

Thermal conductivity
Temperature, °CW/m °CTemperature, °FBtu/ft h °F
 20  14  68  8
 100  15  200  8.5
 200  17  400  10
 300  18  600  10.5
 400  20  800  11.5
 500  21  1000  12.5
600 23 1100 13
Specific heat capacity
Temperature, °CJ/kg °CTemperature, °FBtu/lb °F
20 485 68 0.11
100 500 200 0.12
200 515 400 0.12
300 525 600 0.13
400 540 800 0.13
500 555 1000 0.13
600 575 1100 0.14
Thermal expansion, mean values in temperature ranges (x10-6)
Temperature, °CPer °CTemperature, °FPer °F
30-100 16.5 86-200 9.5
30-200 17 86-400 9.5
30-300 17.5 86-600 10
30-400 18 86-800 10
30-500 18 86-1000 10
30-600 18.5 86-1200 10.5
30-700 18.5 86-1400 10.5
Modulus of elasticity, (x103)
Temperature, °CMPaTemperature, °Fksi
20 200 68 29.0
100 194 200 28.2
200 186 400 26.9
300 179 600 25.8
400 172 800 24.7
500 165 1000 23.5


The weldability of Sanmac® 4435 is good. Suitable methods of fusion welding are manual metal-arc welding (MMA/SMAW) and gas-shielded arc welding, with the TIG/GTAW method as first choice.

Due to this material is alloyed in such a way that it shall have good machinability there can be a higher amount of surface oxides on the welded beads compared to standard 316L steels. This may lead to arc instability during TIG/GTAW welding, especially welding without filer material. However, the welding behavior of this material is the same as for standard 316L steels when welding with filler material.

For Sanmac® 4435, heat input of <2.0 kJ/mm and interpass temperature of <150°C (300°F) are recommended. Preheating and post-weld heat treatment are normally not necessary.

Recommended filler metals

TIG/GTAW or MIG/GMAW welding

ISO 14343 S 19 12 3 L / AWS A5.9 ER316L (e.g. Exaton 19.12.3.L)

MMA/SMAW welding

ISO 3581 E 19 12 3 L R / AWS A5.4 E316L-17(e.g. Exaton 19.12.3.LR)


Sanmac is our trademark for the Alleima machinability concept. In SANMAC materials, machinability has been improved without jeopardising properties such as corrosion resistance and mechanical strength.

The improved machinability is owing to:

  • optimised non-metallic inclusions
  • optimal chemical composition
  • optimised process and production parameters

Detailed recommendations for the choice of tools and cutting data regarding turning, thread cutting, parting/grooving, drilling, milling and sawing are provided in the brochure S-02909-ENG. The diagram shows the ranges within which data should be chosen in order to obtain a tool life of minimum 10 minutes when machining austenitic SANMAC® 4435 (316L min. 2.5% Molybdenum / EN 1.4435)


The ranges are limited in the event of low feeds because of unacceptable chip breaking. In the case of high cutting speeds, plastic deformation is the most dominant cause of failure. When feed increases and the cutting speed falls, edge frittering (chipping) increases significantly. The diagram is applicable for short cutting times. For long, continuous cuts, the cutting speeds should be reduced somewhat. The lowest recommended cutting speed is determined by the tendency of the material to stick to the insert (built-up-edge), although the integrity of insert clamping and the stability of the machine are also of great significance.

It is important to conclude which wear mechanism is active, in order to optimise cutting data with the aid of the diagram.

Disclaimer: Recommendations are for guidance only, and the suitability of a material for a specific application can be confirmed only when we know the actual service conditions. Continuous development may necessitate changes in technical data without notice. This datasheet is only valid for Alleima materials.